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民事诉讼风险告知书

发布时间:2019-01-18 16:13
为使当事人在起诉前、诉讼中和申请执行前预见可能发生的风险,以谨慎地选择诉讼手段解决纠纷,并在诉讼中正确行使诉讼权利,积极、全面、及时地履行举证等责任,以切实维护自身合法权益。根据《中华人民共和国民法通则》 、《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》以及《最高人民法院关于民事诉讼证据的若干规定》,现将诉讼不当可能产生的风险提前告知各方当事人:
 
In order to enable the parties to foresee possible risks before prosecution, litigation and application for enforcement, they should carefully choose litigation means to settle disputes, properly exercise litigation rights in litigation, actively, comprehensively and timely fulfill the burden of proof, and so on, in order to effectively safeguard their legitimate rights and interests. In accordance with the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China and the Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Evidence in Civil Procedure, the parties concerned are informed in advance of the risks that may arise from improper litigation:
 
 
 
1、关于超过诉讼时效
 
1. On Exceeding the Limitation of Action
 
 
 
向人民法院请求保护民事权利的诉讼时效一般为二年,但因身体受到伤害、商品质量不合格、保管财物丢失、毁损等赔偿之诉以及请求支付租金等的诉讼时效为一年。对诉讼时效届满后当事人提起诉讼的案件,当事人虽享有起诉权,但被告如以原告行使诉讼权利超过诉讼时效为由进行抗辩,而原告确无诉讼时效中止、中断法定事由或不符合人民法院可予延长诉讼时效之情况的,人民法院将判决原告丧失胜诉权(俗称败诉)。
 
The limitation of action for the protection of civil rights to the people's court is usually two years. However, the limitation of action for compensation for bodily injury, disqualification of commodity quality, loss and damage of property in custody and for rent payment is one year. In the case of litigation brought by the parties after the expiration of the limitation of action, although the parties have the right to sue, if the defendant defends on the ground that the plaintiff exercises the right of action beyond the limitation of action, and the plaintiff does not suspend or interrupt the statutory cause of limitation of action, or does not conform to the circumstances in which the people's court may extend the limitation of action, the people's court will rule that the plaintiff loses the right to win the action (commonly called losing the lawsuit).
 
 
 
债权人向人民法院行使请求权,债务人不作时效抗辩,或者超过诉讼时效期间,当事人自愿履行的不受诉讼时效限制。
 
When the creditor exercises the right of claim to the people's court, the debtor does not defend the limitation of action, or when the limitation of action exceeds, the parties'voluntary performance shall not be restricted by the limitation of action.
 
 
 
──《中华人民共和国民法通则》 第135条至第141条
 
- Articles 135 to 141 of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China
 
 
 
2、关于诉讼请求不当
 
2. Inappropriate Litigation Request
 
 
 
民事诉讼实行“不告不理”原则,人民法院根据当事人的诉讼请求来审理案件,如果诉讼请求不完全,会导致未请求部分得不到审理的法律后果。
 
Civil litigation implements the principle of "no complaint but no response". People's courts try cases according to the litigation requests of the parties. If the litigation requests are not complete, it will lead to the legal consequences of not hearing the part of the requests.
 
 
 
如诉讼请求不适当,其不适当部分将不能得到支持,且须自行负担不当请求部分的诉讼费。
 
If the claim is inappropriate, the inappropriate part of the claim will not be supported and the litigation fee for the inappropriate part of the claim will be borne by itself.
 
 
 
诉讼请求中所提给付或索赔金额越高,交纳的诉讼费用也越高。因此,如果对胜诉没有把握,事先应作好损失诉讼费的心理准备。
 
The higher the amount of payment or claim in the claim, the higher the litigation cost. Therefore, if we are not sure of winning a lawsuit, we should make psychological preparations for losing litigation costs in advance.
 
 
 
──《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第107条、第108条、第110条
 
- Articles 107, 108 and 110 of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China
 
 
 
3、关于不按时交纳诉讼费
 
3. On the Payment of Litigation Fees on Time
 
 
 
当事人起诉或上诉,应当依法预交诉讼费。当事人不按时交纳诉讼费用,又不提出减免缓交申诉,或提出减、免、缓交申请未获批准仍不交纳诉讼费,将承担按自动撤诉处理的后果。
 
If a party sues or appeals, he shall pay the litigation fee in advance according to law. If the litigant fails to pay litigation costs on time and does not submit a mitigation or remission appeal, or if the application for mitigation, remission or suspension is not approved and the litigation fee is not paid, the litigant will bear the consequences of the automatic withdrawal of the lawsuit.
 
 
 
当事人申请财产、证据保全以及责令停止侵权,应当提供担保,并依法交纳有关费用,否则将承担可能产生的不利后果。
 
When applying for property, evidence preservation and ordering the termination of infringement, the parties concerned shall provide guarantees and pay relevant expenses according to law, otherwise they will bear the possible adverse consequences.
 
 
 
── 《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第92条,《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国民事诉讼法>若干问题的意见》第143条
 
Article 92 of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China and Article 143 of the Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on the Application of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China
 
 
 
4、关于不按时参加庭审
 
4. About not attending the trial on time
 
 
 
当事人经传票传唤无正当理由不按时参加开庭审理活动的,原告将承担按撤诉处理的后果;被告承担缺席判决的后果。
 
If a party fails to attend the hearing on time without justifiable reasons by summons, the plaintiff shall bear the consequences of withdrawing the lawsuit and the defendant shall bear the consequences of default judgment.
 
 
 
──《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第129条、第130条
 
- Articles 129 and 130 of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China
 
 
 
5、关于不能提供充分、有效证据
 
5. On the inability to provide sufficient and valid evidence
 
 
 
诉讼中争议的事实都是过去发生的。诉讼当事人自己亲身经历了纠纷的全过程,但法官并没有亲眼目睹该事实。如果当事人不能充分提供证据,法官只能根据《最高人民法院关于民事诉讼证据的若干规定》关于当事人在诉讼中应承担的举证责任的规定及其他证据规则规定,对案件事实作出认定。
 
The facts disputed in the lawsuit all happened in the past. The litigant himself experienced the whole process of the dispute, but the judge did not witness the fact. If the parties fail to provide sufficient evidence, the judge can only determine the facts of the case in accordance with the provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Evidence in Civil Procedure concerning the burden of proof that the parties should bear in the proceedings and other rules of evidence.
 
 
 
当事人对自己提出的诉讼请求或者反驳对方的诉讼请求,有责任提供证据加以证明,没有证据或证据不足的,负有举证责任的当事人将承担不利甚至败诉的后果。
 
If there is no evidence or insufficient evidence, the party who bears the burden of proof will bear the consequences of disadvantageous or even losing the lawsuit.
 
 
 
向法院提供证据一般应当提供原件或原物;提交外文书证,必须附有具有翻译资质的机构或人员制作的中文译本;若证据系在港澳台地区或国外形成的,还应履行相应的公证、认证手续,否则会导致证据无效的后果。提供证人证言的,证人须亲自出庭作证(证人确有困难不能出庭的五种情形除外),否则人民法院将对相关证人证言不予采信。
 
Providing evidence to the court should generally provide the original document or the original material; submitting evidence in foreign documents must be accompanied by a Chinese translation made by a qualified translation agency or personnel; if evidence is formed in Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan or abroad, corresponding notarization and certification procedures should also be carried out, otherwise it will lead to the consequences of invalid evidence. If a witness testifies, the witness must testify in person (except in five cases where the witness is really in difficulty and cannot appear in court), otherwise the people's court will not accept the testimony of the relevant witness.
 
 
 
──《最高人民法院关于民事诉讼证据的若干规定》第2条、第10条、第11条、第12条、第55条、第56条;《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第68条、第242条
 
- Articles 2, 10, 11, 12, 55 and 56 of the Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Evidence in Civil Procedure; Articles 68 and 242 of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China
 
 
 
6、关于举证期限及其法律后果
 
6. Time limit of proof and its legal consequences
 
 
 
当事人必须在一定的期限内向人民法院提供证据,除因正当理由,依据有关规定向人民法院申请延长举证期限且经人民法院批准同意延长举证期限外,当事人在举证期限内不提交证据的,视为放弃举证权利。对于当事人逾期提交的证据材料,人民法院审理时不组织质证(对方同意质证除外),更不能作为定案证据。负有举证责任的一方当事人,将承担所主张的事实不能被认定、甚至承担败诉的后果。
 
The party concerned must provide evidence to the people's court within a certain period of time. Except for applying to the people's court for an extension of the period of proof for justified reasons and in accordance with relevant provisions, and with the approval of the people's court, if the party fails to submit evidence within the period of proof, it shall be deemed to give up the right of proof. The people's court does not organize cross-examination of the evidence materials submitted by the parties within the time limit (except for the cross-examination agreed by the other party), nor can it be used as final evidence. The party who bears the burden of proof will bear the consequence that the facts claimed cannot be recognized or even lost.
 
 
 
当事人增加、变更诉讼请求或提出反
 
Increase or change of litigation request or counter-claim by the parties

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